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Cracking Moment Equation

Cracking moment equation is a famous formula that gives you the value of tensile bending stress at which the concrete of the beam starts to crack. This concept is important to understand the stress distribution of the beam across the depth. It will also help you to determine the deflection in the concrete at the point of failure. But for deflection calculation you can’t use the gross moment of Inertia (Ig) because of cracking effect. So, instead you have to use the effective moment of inertia (Ie) which provides transition between the upper and lower bounds of Ig and Icr.   However, for Ie you have to determine the Mcr which is the cracking moment. Establishing the Cracking moment Equation Let’s now derive its formula Step No. 1 – finding modulus of rupture But first you have to establish an equation for the modulus of rupture (MOR) of concrete. Modulus of rupture is the tensile flexural strength of the beam and it shows the amount of stress and force an unreinforced concrete

Foam Concrete – Uses – Strength – Properties – Mix Design

While looking for different types of concrete, you may be wondering about the foam concrete. It’s a relatively unique type of light weight concrete mix that has plethora of applications. Foam concrete is cement-based slurry that is made by mixing cement, water, fine aggregate and stable foam. The foaming agent agitates the air-bubbles into the concrete matrix and is thus also termed as aircrete, cellular concrete or low-density concrete. Foam Concrete – a non-toxic environmentally friendly alternative to standard concrete According to the Concrete Institute at Midrand, the foam concrete has minimum of 20% air to that of the concrete volume while the size of these bubbles can range from 0.2 to 0.4 mm. This agitating of air bubbles make this concrete resistant against fire and because of the same feature it processes highly flowability and excellent thermal insulation. Strength – It doesn’t matter always. Because its density ranges from 300 to 1800 kg/m3 (according to A Raj ),

Different Types of Bat Bricks in Construction

Wondering about different types of bat bricks in construction and brick masonry? Well, with so many terminologies involved anyone can get confused. So, in today’s read we’d like to show you different types of cut bricks one may need while working on brick masonry. Please be noted that the word “bat” has nothing to do with your favorite hero character “bat man” J Bats in brick masonry The term “brick bat” is generally used to express a brick that has been cut along the width or length of the brick such that it is of smaller size than the original brick. Anyhow following are the different types of brick bats and their uses: The sequence of my below explanation will further help you in remembering the concept; so keep in mind this sequence as well. Closer The word “Closer” is given to such a brick bat that is used to close the brick course or in other terms that is used at the end of a course. In broader meanings, a brick is a closer brick when you cut it longitudinally and u

Primate Coat - Meaning – Thickness – Temperature – Tack coat

A prime coat is a low viscosity asphalt waterproofing layer between asphalt course and aggregate base or WBM.  But there’s far more than just the meaning. So, in today’s blog article; we’ll cover all the specifications for primate coat i.e thickness, temperature, and will answer primate vs tack coat. So, grab a cup of coffee and read on. Before I tell you the exact details about prime coat let me put up an example to help you in understanding what really the need of prime coat is. We lay flexible asphaltic pavements in layers in which asphaltic wearing and base course is laid on top of the crushed aggregate. You can also call this base course as a granular aggregate layer or water bound macadam. This layer of aggregate has capillaries in there so it is very important that any underground water seepage may not go up to damage asphaltic layer. So, let’s now define what prime coat is. Definition - Meaning A prime coat is a low viscous bituminous layer of cutback or emulsified

POT Bearings vs Elastomeric Bearings

Looking for POT bearing vs elastomeric bearing? Look no further because in today’s article we’re going to elaborate this very important topic in bridges and girders. As a bridge engineer you might know that the bridge girders won’t go directly on the beam seat and instead bearings are provided that act as a resting surface between the girders and the pier or abutment. So, we can say that bridge bridges are provided so as to allow relative movement between superstructure and substructure. Did you know? These bearings are not only used in bridges. They’re also used in large infrastructure projects such as heavy building and high rise building so that loads, moment, rotation are transferred to underneath structures without any damage. Purpose of Bridge Bearings The bridge bearings serve two purposes as structural devices in bridges. They are meant to transmit heavy imposed loads from the super structure to substructure. They also provide mechanism so as to allow bridge to accomm

Pile Cap in a bridge – Definition – Types and Construction Procedures

 Pile cap is a solid foundation that carries the load from the pier and transfers equally on the underneath group of piles. A pile cap is just like a thick concrete mat and the rebar dowels are embedded into it along with the dowels of the pier. Definition A thick concrete mat that is constructed above group of piles that carries the load from the pier and transfer it to the underneath group of piles is called a pile cap. Need of a Pile Cap - Reason As you’re aware of the fact that the pile foundation is a type of deep foundation that is used in areas where the bearing capacity of soil is not sufficient or the superimposed load is greater. Pile cap in most of the cases is covered/buried under the soil and thus in most cases it is applied with bitumen to protect the concrete. Whether you’re constructing a pile foundation for a building or for a bridge, you have to provide a pile cap so that the load can be equally distributed among the underneath piles. This pile cap is the on